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A Beautiful RevolutionA Beautiful Revolution: Illustration of the Victorian Eraby Jack Raz"It is impossible to predict the time and progress of revolution. It is governed by its own more or less mysterious laws." Vladimir LeninAny discussion involving art and design in the Victorian Era must begin and end with illustration. While illustration (or the art of representing pictorially some idea which has been expressed in words) has existed since art itself, in the 19th Century, illustration would undergo an artistic revolution unparalleled in the
Paper IdeologiesPaper Ideologies: The Propaganda Posters of the Second World Warby Jack Raz"Nothing is easier than leading the people on a leash. I just hold up a dazzling campaign poster and they jump through it."Joseph GoebbelsOver the course of World War II, posters were used as one of the most effective forms of propaganda. This was due to the fact that a poster has an instant and powerful effect that a newspaper or leaflet just couldn't match. They express in the clearest possible manner the ideals or message of the nation and its leaders. Between 1939 and 1945, the propaganda poster served a wide range of goals and was employed in a number of different uses by the various nations at war. For the most part, these posters can be divided into five distinct groups: An Appeal to Patriotism, A Warning Against Spies and Saboteurs, A Call For War Production, A Highlighting of Alliances, and finally as A Means to Spread Hatred. This paper examines the various groups of posters and the ways in which e
The Poster StyleLess is More: The Poster Styleby Jack Raz"When thought is too weak to be simply expressed, it is clear proof it should be rejected."Luc de ClapiersAs the sun rose on the 20th century, its beams fell upon the walls and shop fronts of Europe, which were usually covered in posters. Though initially these posters were a continuation of the art nouveau style that had dominated the latter half of the 19th century; as people walked to work in Germany on sun-filled mornings in 1905, they began to notice a new kind of poster. Equally influenced by both the modern art movement and a need to visually communicate with the general public, this new poster style was about maintaining a balance between communicative imagery and design form in a reductive manner which utilized the entire picture plane. Generally recognized by their use of flat color images masterfully combined with text, the posters of the Plakatstil or Poster-Style, represented something not altogether new, but like the artists wh
The Genius of Albrecht DurerThe Genius of Albrecht Dürerby Jack Raz"When human power becomes so great and original that we can account for it only as a kind of divine imagination, we call it genius." William CrashawIn his own lifetime, Albrecht Durer's artwork would garner not only universal admiration from his contemporaries but a mass public appeal that few other artists have experienced. Combining both the traditional gothic traits of the northern school with the humanist ideals of the Italian renaissance, his style was an utterly unique hybrid that would usher in the renaissance to Northern Europe and leave a lasting mark on the world of art. But style and popularity are only the by-products of something more fundamental. Whether it lies in the penetration of his portrayal, the breadth of his compositions, or his mastery of depict